Describe five major types of materials handling methods and name some advantages of each.
Five Major Types Of Materials Handling Methods:
Movement - involves the actual transportation or transfer of material from one point to the next.
Quantity - dictates the type and nature of the material handling equipment and also cost per unit for the conveyance of the goods.
Time -how quickly the material can move through the facility
Space - concerned with the required space for the storage of the material handling equipment and their movement, as well as the queuing or staging space for the material itself.
Control - tracking of the material, positive identification, and inventory management
A major competitive advantage,due to its impact on
in sum,a revenue enhancer,not a cost contributor.
Advantages of correct materials handling
- - Savings in storage and operating space
- - Better stock control
- - Improved working conditions
- - Improved quality
- Lower risk of accidents
- - Reduced processing time
- - Lower production costs
- - Less waste of time and materials
In order to perform the activities of materials handling the basic goal is to minimise the production costs. This general objective can be further subdivided into specific objectives as follows :
i) To reduce the costs by decreasing inventories, minimising the distance to be handled and increasing productivity.
ii) To increase the production capacity by smoothing the work flow, iii) To minimise the waste during handling.
iv) To improve distribution through better location of facilities and improved routing.
v) To increase the equipment and space utilisation.
vi) To improve the working conditions. '
vii) To improve the customer service.
Basic Materials Handling Systems : The different material handling systems can be classified according to the type of equipment used, material handled, method used or the function performed.
Equipment-Oriented Systems : Depending upon the type of equipment used, there are several systems. :
i) Overhead systems
ii) Conveyer systems
iii) Tractor-trailor system
iv) Fork-life truck and pallet system
v) Industrial truck systems
vi) Underground systems.
Material Oriented Systems : These may be of the following types:i) Unit handling systemsii) Bulk handling systemsiii) Liquid handling systems
A unit load consists of a number of items so arranged that it can be picked up and moved as a single entity such as a box, bale, roll etc. Such a system in more flexible and requires less investment.
Method Oriented Systems : According to the method of handling and method of production, the material handling systems can be:
i) Manual systems
ii) Mechanized or automated systems
iii) Job-shop handling systems, or
iv) Mass-production handling systems
Function Oriented Systems : The systems can be defined according to the material handling function performed as follows:
i) Transportation systems
ii) Conveying systems
iii) Transferring systems
iv) Elevating systems
Selection and Design of Handling System : The selection and design of the material system should be done alongside the development of the layout as each one affects each other. Hence, an integrated approach to the design process is usable. A computerized technique known as COFAC (Computerized Facilities Design) has been developed for
integrated handling system and layout design. The steps to be followed in the selectionand design of handling systems are as follows :i) Identification of system
ii) Review of design criteria and objectives of the handling system iii) Data collection regarding flow pattern and flow requirements iv) Identification of activity relationships
v) Determining space requirement and establishing material flow pattern
vi) Analysis of material and building characteristics
vii) Preliminary selection of basic handling system and generation alternatives
considering feasibility of mechanization and equipment capabilities
viii) Evaluation of alternatives with respect to optimal material flow, utilizing gravity, minimum cost, flexibility, ease of maintenance, capacity utilisation and other objectives of the system design considering various tangible and intangible factors
ix) Selection of the best suited alternative and checking it for compatibility
x) Specification of the system
xi) Procurement of the equipment and implementation of the system
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